Relatorio: A política das eleições gerais de 2022 em Angola

Este estudo teve lugar no contexto do programa de pesquisa noruegueês – angolano “Melhorar o Ambiente de Investigação em Angola através de Desenvolvimento de Capacidades 2019–2024.


As eleições gerais realizadas em Angola, a 24 de Agosto de 2022, foram, em geral, esperadas como as mais competitivas da era pós-guerra no país. Essa expectativa manteve-se verdadeira, embora os resultados oficiais, por uma margem historicamente escassa, tenham permitido que o presidente em exercício e o seu partido permanecessem no poder. Este Relatório tenta avaliar o processo eleitoral, à luz dos padrões comuns internacionais de eleições “livres e justas”, casos de alegadas fraudes eleitorais e uma discussão sobre se as eleições conduziram Angola para uma direcção mais democrática. O cepticismo anterior sobre a vontade do partido no poder de, em qualquer circunstância, aceitar a derrota e desistir do poder foi, claramente, confirmado. Embora tenhamos encontrado graves falhas na forma como o processo foi conduzido e, por isso, também tenhamos dúvidas sobre a justeza do resultado eleitoral e a legitimidade do presidente reeleito, o estudo proporcionou uma importante oportunidade para avaliar aspectos críticos do sistema político angolano.

Baixar Angola Eleições 2022 Relatório Final

Report: The politics of Angola´s 2022 general elections (English version)

The study took place within the context of the Norwegian – Angolan research programme “Enhancing the Research Environment in Angola through Capacity Develpment 2019-2024”.


The general elections held in Angola on 24 August 2022 were generally anticipated as the most competitive in the country’s post-war era. That expectation held true, although the official results by a historically thin margin permitted the incumbent President and his Party to remain in power. This Report attempts to assess the election process up against common international standards of ‘free and fair’ elections, cases of alleged election rigging, and a discission of whether the elections took Angola in a more democratic direction. Prior scepticism about the incumbent party’s willingness under any circumstances to concede defeat and give up power was clearly confirmed. Although we have found serious flaws in the way the process was conducted, and therefore also have doubts about the correctness of the election result and the legitimacy of the re-elected President, the study has provided an important opportunity to assess critical aspects of the Angolan political system.

Download Angola Elections 2022 Final Report


Angola-Norway Research Programme

Enhancing the Research Environment in Angola through Capacity Development (2019-2024)

The programme, coordinated by Scanteam in a consortium with Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI – Bergen), is financed by the Norwegian Embassy in Luanda, and has a total budget of 37.5 million NOK for a duration of four years.

The main purpose of the programme is to increase high quality science-based and independent research that can enhance the factual basis and understanding underlying public decision-making, media reporting and public discourse on current and future economic and socio-political issues in Angola.

The following Angolan institutions are so far involved:

  • Universidade Católica de Angola (UCAN), with the following reserasch centres:
    • Centro de Estudos e Investigação Cientifica (CEIC),
    • Centro de Estudos Africanos (CEA),
    • Laboratório de Ciências Sociais e Humanidades (LAB)
  • Centro de Estudos e Pesquisa (CEsP) at The Instituto Superior Politécnico JeanPiaget, located in Benguela
  • Centro de Investigação Social e Económica (CISE), the research unit of the Faculty of Economics (FECUAN) at the University of Agostinho Neto (UAN)

The team

The Norwegian project team consists of eight senior Norwegian researchers/consultants, all with PhDs in relevant fields. There is also a resident programme manager in Angola with administrative and financial responsibility for day-to-day implementation. In addition, the consortium can call upon a pool of researchers from a wider network of research institutions with which the consortium partners have long-standing relations.

The Angolan project team so far consists of 22 researchers at different levels, representing six research institutions selected to be part of the programme. The number of individual researchers and even institutions may be extended as the Programme evolves.

Norwegian Core Team:

  • Mr Vegard Bye, Scanteam, Programme Coordinator; coordinator project 7 “Umbrella”
  • Mr Arne Wiig, CMI, Lead economist, coordinator project 1 “UCAN-CEIC” and project 4 “UAN-CISE” 
  • Mr Aslak Orre, CMI, Lead political scientist, coordinator project 2, “UCAN-CEA”
  • Mr Inge Amundsen, CMI, coordinator project 3, “UCAN-LAB”
  • Ms Torun Reite, Scanteam, project 6 gender coordinator and coordinator project 5, “Benguela cluster”
  • Mr Arne Disch, Scanteam, coordinator project 7, “Administrative Capacity Development”
  • Ms. Vibeke Skauerud, Scanteam, resident manager in Angola

Angolan Core Team:

  •      Mr José Alves da Rocha, CEIC-UCAN, coordinator project 1
  •      Mr Nelson Pestana, CEA-UCAN, coordinator project 2
  •      Ms Cesaltina Abreu, coordinator project 3
  •      Mr Fernandes Wanda, CISE-UAN, coordinator project 4
  •      Mr Carlos Pacatelo, coordinator project 5
  •      Ms Flora Telo, gender coordinator, coordinator project 6

Research Themes

The programme consists of thematic modules that address some of the most crucial issues for socio-economic development in Angola. Furthermore, built in to the programme are cross-cutting objectives such as gender mainstreaming and administrative capacity development. Activities aligned to these objectives are implemented across the portfolio of work, to strengthen participating research institutions and build local capacity.


Economic Research on Extractive Industries


This project and its subcomponents will explore the following questions:

  • How have the ongoing restructuring and changing external expectations affected the CSR levels and practices of oil companies and large oil service firms world-wide and in Angola?
  • What are the local impacts of the production of diamonds on the livelihood of people living around the mines?
  • What has been accomplished so far in terms of non-oil sector tax collection both in nominal and real terms?
  • Has the tax base been broadened?
  • Will the implementation of VAT increase the value of the non-oil sector tax collection?

Implementing institutions

  • CMI
  • CEIC

Lead responsibility

  • Arne Wiig, CMI
  • Manuel Rocha, CEIC

Local Governance and Autarquias


This part of the programme aims to accompany and observe the Angolan local governance reform, with a focus on the promised establishment of autarquias – locally constituted municipal governments. The project will analyse and debate its institutional environment in-making, local finances and the political battle over local power. Studying the reform process from several angles will make it uniquely placed to provide unparalleled breadth of insight: From above, from below, through international comparison and with a gender-lens.

Implementing institutions

  • CEA
  • CMI
  • Scanteam
  • CeSP

Lead responsibility

  • Aslak Orre, CMI
  • Nelson Pestana, CEA



Socio-economic development in Angola has suffered from a lack of checks and balances to the former president dos Santos’ excessive power.  The project will study institutions like the parliament, election commission, auditor general, the courts and actors like civil society groups and youth organizations to see if there have been any changes in their ability to hold the government accountable.

Implementing institutions

  • CMI
  • LAB
  • Scanteam

Lead responsibility

  • Inge Amundsen, CMI
  • Cesaltina Abreu, LAB
  • Catarina Gomes, LAB

Information as a Driver of Change


The objective of this project is to develop research capacity on economic research of relevance for Angola. It will assess the importance of transparency about information about oil revenue as a driver of change in public sentiment and research the types and sources of information that are important for accountability in Angola.

Under the supervision of CMI and CISE, Master and PhD students will be included in the research to explore how different experimental economics methodoogies such as impact evaluations and ramdomised control trials can be used to analyse the Angolan experience and derive policy recommendations.

Implementing institutions

  • CMI
  • CISE

Lead responsibility

  • Arne Wiig, CMI
  • Fernandes Wanda, CISE

Benguela-based Research


Building on projects two and three, acitivities within this project will also explore themes such as local governance dynamics and accountability, but with a specific focus on the Benguela province. It is designed to strengthen inter-institutional research collaboration within the Benguela province and build networks between Benguela and Luanda-based institutions.

Implementing institutions

  • CeSP Benguela
  • Scanteam

Lead responsibility

  • Torun Reite, Scanteam

Cross-Cutting Research

The analysis drawn from the below listed projects are designed to be useful to the programme as a whole The research conducted will apply to each core module

Gender mainstreaming of the project portfolio


This cross cutting theme will engage actively with Norwegian equality and non-discrimination perspectives, and adopt an approach to integrate a gendered perspective into institutional development, the broader outreach and dissemination activities and, as far as possible, in the perspectives of the research projects. From the institutional development through to the research activities, sex-disaggregated performance targets and output data are included in monitoring and reporting for the programme.

Implementing institutions

  • Scanteam
  • CeSP
  • CEA
  • Piaget

Lead responsbility

  • Angolan Gender Coordinator: Flora Telo, CeSP
  • Norwegian Gender Coordinator: Torun Reite, Scanteam
Administrative Capacity Development


The organisational, administrative, financial capacity development will be a demand-driven process, with the clear objective of enabling the universities/research centres to reach a level of documentable competencies that make them interesting partners for international research projects in the future.

Most of the formal capacity development will take place during annual workshops where all the participating institutions will take part. These workshops will be a mix of problem identification, experience sharing, lessons learned and formal training on specific topics that are of most use to the institutions involved.

Implementing institutions

  • Scanteam
  • Research institutes in Angola

Lead responsbility

  • Arne Disch, Scanteam
  • Vibeke Skauerud, Scanteam
Umbrella project


This module will monitor and publically disseminate activities originating in each project, through publication of OpEds, media interviews or smaller events for instance in cooperation with NGOs. Research and analysis from this module will monitor the possible political-economic transformations in post dos Santos Angola during the four-year duration of the programme and extract novel insights from the programme at large.

Implementing institutions

  • All

Lead responsibility

  • Vegard Bye, Scanteam

Webinar Series

The State of Research on Transformations in Angola: As a part of the Angolan-Norwegian research programme, a series of webinars are scheduled from March to May 2021 to stimulate debate and open conversation on the past, present and future of Angola

This page will be updated with content from each webinar including recordings of the discussion and presentation materials. To join the conversation about the topics, visit our facebook page, by clicking here.

  • 11 March 2021, 14:00 – 16:30 CET: Angola – from economic boom to a post-petroleum economy
  • 25 March 2021, 14:00 – 16:30 CET: Angola – from dos Santos to Lourenço
  • 15 April 2021, 14:00 – 16:30 CET: Angola in a changing world
  • 29 April 2021,14:00 – 16:30 CET: Towards a more transparent society?
  • 6 May 2021 14:00 – 16:00 CET: Summing up: Is a real transformation of power relations underway in Angola?

This page will be updated with content from each webinar shortly after its completion.

The full proposed program with proposed speakers and text in Portugese can be downloaded below.

Webinar one: Angola – from economic boom to a post-petroleum economy

  • Date: Thursday 11 March
  • Time: 14:00 – 16:30 CET
  • Location: Zoom.
  • Moderator: Ricardo Soares de Oliveira, Oxford University

Session 1 – The oil economy in terminal crisis? Thinking transition to post-oil Angola


  • Carlos Rosado de Carvalho, Expansão / UCAN
  • Benjamin Augé, IFRI / Sub-Sahara Center


  • Rebecca Engebretsen, OECD (ex-Norwegian «Oil for Development» Programme)

Session 2 – The deepening social crisis (including as consequence of pandemic)


  • Sergio Calundungo, Norwegian Church Aid
  • Carlos Pacatolo, Afrobarometer


  • Aurea Mouzinho, Open Society

Webinar two: Angola from dos Santos to Lourenço

  • Date: Thursday 25 March
  • Time: 14:00 – 16:30 CET
  • Location: Zoom
  • Moderators:
    • Ricardo Soares de Oliveira
    • Cesaltina Abreu / Catarina Gomes, LAB

Session 1 – Is Angola departing from presidential absolutism?


  • Jon Schubert, Brunel University, London
  • Filomeno Viera Lopes, UCAN


  • Didier Peclard, Global Studies Institute, University of Geneva

Session 2 – Emergence of a more pluralist civil, academic and media society?


  • Lucia de Silveira, AJPD
  • Susana Mendes (deputy head of Journalist Union)


  • Justin Pearce, Sussex

Webinar three: Angola in a changing world

  • Date: Thursday 15 April
  • Time: 14:00 – 16:30 CET
  • Location: Zoom

Session 1 – Angola and the main global powers (China, Russia, US, EU)


  • Mathias de Alencastro, CEBRAP / Brazil 

Mathias Alencastro is a postdoctoral fellow at the São Paulo Research Foundation (Fapesp). His work focuses on Brazil-Africa relations and the politics of private companies in the extractive sector. He served as a senior advisor at the Brazilian
presidency (2015-2016). He is currently working on a new plan for Brazil-Africa relations on behalf of a presidential candidate in the 2022 elections. He holds a PhD in Politics from the University of Oxford.

  • Dr. Assis Malaquias, California State University / Maritime Academy

Dr. Assis Malaquias is Full Professor and Chair of the Department of Global Studies and Maritime Affairs at the California State University (Maritime). He is also Associate at the Corbett Center for Maritime Policy Studies, King’s College, University of London. He has an extensive and distinguished career in academia and public service. Prior to joining Cal Maritime, he served as Overseas Maritime Security Advisor in the Africa Bureau, U.S. Department of State. He also served as the Academic Chair for Defense Economics at the U.S. National Defense University’s Africa Center for Strategic Studies. Professor Malaquias’ previous appointments include: Associate Dean of International and Intercultural Studies and Professor of Government at St. Lawrence University in Canton, New York; Extraordinary Associate Professor of Political Studies at the University of Western Cape; and a visiting Professor at Stellenbosch University. He holds a B.A. (Honors) in Political Science from the University of Winnipeg, a Master’s degree in Economics and a Ph.D. in Political Science both from Dalhousie University. His areas of specialization include International Relations, Strategy, International Security, and Maritime Security.

Session 2 – Angola as a sub-regional power in Africa


  • Paula Roque, Oxford University

Paula Cristina Roque has been an independent analyst on Angola for two decades. She has worked for the Crisis Management Initiative established by President Martti Ahtisaari; the South Sudan Centre for Strategic and Policy
Studies, Juba; the International Crisis Group, as senior analyst for Southern Africa; the Institute for Security Studies as Horn of Africa Senior Researcher; and China in Africa Research Coordinator at SAIIA. Roque has published extensively on Angola and frequently briefs the media, governments, and think tanks on her countries of expertise. She has a DPhil from the University of Oxford and a MSc from the London School of Economics. Her book Governing in the Shadows – Angola’s securitized state, published by Hurst, will be out in August 2021


  • Claudia Gastrow, University of Johannesburg

Webinar four: Towards a more transparent society?

  • Date: Thursday 29 April
  • Time: 14:00 – 16:30 CET
  • Location: Zoom
  • Moderator: Ricardo Soares de Oliveira

Session 1: Luanda Leaks and beyond: How deep does the fight against the corruption culture really go?


  • Karina Carvalho, Executive Director of Transparency International Portugal
  • Luzia Sebastião, Former judge of the Constitutional Court

Session 2: Will political de-centralization ever take place in Angola?


  • Hitler Samussuku, Movimento Jovens pelas Autarquías (MJPA) 
  • Paulo Faria, Ambuila: Pesquisa e Produção Cientifica